Practitioners’ vocational guidance with direct learning mo

刊名: International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 作者:实践者直接学习模式的职业指导:影响电气/电子技术教育的职业承诺和就业能力 来源:International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 发布时间:2021-07-07 09:47
Keywords Career commitment Employability skills Vocational electrical/ electronic technology Rsum Praticien-enne-s de lorientation scolaire et professionnelle avec un modle dapprentissage direct: Influencer lengagement professionnel et lem
Keywords Career commitment · Employability skills · Vocational electrical/ electronic technology
Résumé
Praticien-enne-s de l’orientation scolaire et professionnelle avec un modèle d’apprentissage direct: Influencer l’engagement professionnel et l’employabilité dans l’enseignement des sciences de l’électricité/électronique. Cette étude exam- ine les effets de l’orientation professionnelle avec un modèle d’apprentissage direct sur l’engagement professionnel et l’employabilité des étudiant-e-s universitaires par le biais du sentiment d’efficacité personnelle lié à l’apprentissage professionnel. Les
* Samson Onyeluka Chukwuedo so.chukwuedo@unizik.edu.ng Ijeoma Madonna Onwusuru im.onwusuru@unizik.edu.ng Nnaemeka Martin Agbo nm.agbo@unizik.edu.ng 1 Department of Technology and Vocational Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
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participant-e-s (N = 214) étaient des étudiant-e-s en sciences de l’électricité/électron- ique provenant de deux universités du Nigeria. Un modèle quasi-expérimental à deux groupes avec une enquête en trois temps a été adopté. Les résultats ont révélé une aug- mentation de la prise d’engagement professionnel, de l’identification à l’engagement, des futures compétences perçues liées à l’employabilité et du sentiment d’efficacité personnelle lié à l’apprentissage professionnel au sein du groupe d’intervention par rapport au groupe de contrôle. L’augmentation du sentiment d’efficacité personnelle lié à l’apprentissage professionnel a favorisé l’identification à l’engagement, mais pas la prise d’engagement professionnel, ni les futures compétences perçues liées à l’employabilité.
Zusammenfassung
Anwendung von Berufsberatung mit Direktlernmodell: Einfluss auf das Beruf- sengagement und die Beschäftigungsfähigkeit in der Elektro-/ Elektroniktech- nikausbildung. Diese Studie untersucht die Auswirkungen von Berufsberatung mit einem direkten Lernmodell auf das berufliche Engagement und die Beschäftigungs- fähigkeit von Universitätsstudierenden durch Selbstwirksamkeit beim beruflichen Lernen. Die Teilnehmer (N = 214) waren Studierende der elektrischen/elektronis- chen Technologieausbildung von zwei Universitäten in Nigeria. Es wurde ein zwei- Gruppen quasi-experimentelles Design mit einer drei-Wellen Erhebung verwendet.
Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine Erhöhung des beruflichen Engagements, der Identifika- tion mit dem Engagement, der wahrgenommenen zukünftigen Beschäftigungsfähig- keit und der Selbstwirksamkeit beim beruflichen Lernen in der Interventionsgruppe im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe. Die Zunahme der Selbstwirksamkeit beim berufli- chen Lernen beeinflusste indirekt die Identifikation mit dem Engagement, aber nicht das berufliche Engagement und die wahrgenommene zukünftige Beschäftigungs- fähigkeit.
Resumen
Orientación educativa y profesional de Profesionales mediante el Modelo de Aprendizaje Directo: Influencia en el compromiso profesional y la obtención de empleo en las enseñanzas detecnología eléctrica/electrónica. Este estudio inves- tiga los efectos de la orientación profesional con un modelo de aprendizaje directo so- bre el compromiso profesional y las habilidades de empleabilidad de los estudiantes universitarios a través de la percepción de autoeficacia en el aprendizaje profesional.
Los participantes (N = 214) fueron estudiantes de enseñanzas de tecnología eléctrica/ electrónica procedentes de dos universidades de Nigeria. Se adoptó un diseño cuasi- experimental de dos grupos con una encuesta de tres fases. Los resultados revelaron un aumento del compromiso con la carrera, de la identificación con el compromiso, de las habilidades percibidas para el empleo futuro y de la percepción de autoeficacia para el aprendizaje profesional entre el grupo experimental en comparación con los del grupo control. El aumento de la percepción de autoeficacia en el aprendizaje de profesional medió en la identificación con el compromiso, pero no en la adopción del compromiso profesional ni en la percepción de las habilidades de empleabilidad futura.
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Introduction
Educational pursuit is usually perceived as a path to career development, but vocational guidance practically helps to bring to light the path to career devel- opment, transition, or success (Arthur & Flynn, 2011; Schoon & Heckhausen, 2019). Within any academic major, learners must be properly guided to transit smoothly from school to work; especially in the present time where career devel- opment has become very crucial. For university or college students that exhibit a high level of career-related thwarting behaviors, career guidance is unavoid- able because of the emerging dynamics in societal and technological advance- ment (Janeiro et al., 2014; Kepir Savoly & Dost, 2020; Sampath, 2014). In the same vein, the persistently high rate of unemployment among fresh graduates (Shi et al., 2018; World Bank, 2019) calls for career guidance. Graduates/youths unemployment in Nigeria, of which electrical/electronic technology graduates are among, also continues to increase (e.g., from 25.5% in 2017 to 57.2% within 2020;—see Edokpolo, 2020; National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria, 2020; Okolie et al., 2020; for details) such that the employability of graduates of electrical/ electronic technology education in Nigeria becomes a mirage (Chukwuedo, 2018). Thus, the call for career intervention becomes very imperative. Although career development interventions have continued to evolve, limited attention has been given to specific academic majors where students tend to exhibit high dis- satisfaction in their major—leading to career thwarting behaviors.
One of the career fields in vocational–technical/technology education in Nigeria where students exhibit dissatisfaction in their major that leads to career thwarting behaviors (Chukwuedo & Ogbuanya, 2018; Ogbuanya et al., 2018) is electrical/electronic technology (Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN, 2013). As an occupational area of specialization, it is expected that potential graduates of electrical/electronic technology education should have work prospects in teach- ing, general-purpose electronic works, residential and commercial electrical works, broadcast and sound engineering/technology, electrical and electronics installation and repair, insurance computer repair, installation and maintenance of automated teller and office machines, electrical power generation, and equipment maintenance as well as the maintenance of hospital diagnostic equipment (Bas- sualdo & Toby, 2004; Chukwuedo, 2018). Despite these prospects, career-related concerns emerge because (a) vocational electrical/electronic technology educa- tion in universities in Nigeria has been wrongly perceived as less prestigious or lucrative, (b) students of the major tend to exhibit dissatisfaction with the major (Chukwuedo & Ogbuanya, 2018; Ogbuanya et al., 2018). These perceptions may hurt students’ career decision-making and employability. Hence, students who fall under such categories require career guidance intervention (Ozlem, 2019).
Although previous career interventions (e.g., Chukwuedo & Ogbuanya, 2018; Kepir Savoly & Dost, 2020; Maree, 2016; Ogbuanya et al., 2018; Ozlem, 2019; Renn et al., 2014) have been undertaken to foster career decision-making among students, none (to our knowledge) were geared towards practitioners’ guidance that integrates direct learning model to foster career commitment and perceived
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future employability skills. We, therefore, presume that additional knowledge of our intervention is needed in career literature to advance understanding in voca- tional guidance as well as students’ career development. Thus, this study aims to advocate a model that can foster students’ career commitment (Porfeli et al., 2011), career self-efficacy (Godwin, 2019; Kezar et al., 2020), and employability skills (Guilbert et al., 2016; Jackson & Edgar, 2019). To achieve this purpose, we deliberately employed practitioners’ vocational advice and guidance with the direct learning model. In this study, practitioners (herein also used as field experts) include a combination of individuals (self-employed electrical/electronic technologists, industrial psychologists, and lecturers/teachers) used to implement the intervention process; but not just the students’ regular classroom lecturers/ teachers. Hence, we exposed a group of students to a treatment that was based on practitioners’ career advice and guidance with direct learning approaches (herein defined as career guidance, advice, and counseling with a brief demonstration of practical skills by experts in the field of study for direct learning experience), while another group of students was not exposed to the same treatment but were given career guidance (without direct learning) by their regular classroom teach- ers only. Nonetheless, data were collected from the two groups at three intervals (i.e., pre-experimental survey—T1, post-experimental survey—T2, and follow-up survey—T3).
Theories underpinning the study
This study is supported by Holland’s theory of personality or interest type (Holland, 1997), the social cognitive career theory (SCCT, Lent et al., 1994), and direct learn- ing instructional theory (Becker & Engelimann, 1977; Kenny, 1980).
Holland’s model
Because our intervention involves learning and career, whereby individuals with personality differences serve as our participants, we deemed it fit to partly apply Holland’s model of vocational interest and personality type (Amstrong et al., 2008).
Similarly, personality differences may lead to differences in career perception and development. Hence, we briefly explained the RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional) model during this study’s interven- tion. Holland’s model was developed to understand the vocational choice (e.g., the field of study, occupations, job transition, and success) people make concerning per- sonality differences (Amstrong et al., 2008; Gottfredson & Duffy, 2008; Holland, 1997). Thus, within the context of this study, Holland’s model is partly essential to briefly explain RIASEC to foster adequate vocational guidance as well as career skills.
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Social cognitive career theory (SCCT)
Building upon social cognitive theory (SCT—which emphasizes that learning expe- riences, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations play significant roles in the devel- opmental processes of an individual—Bandura, 1986), SCCT originally focused on and explains the elements of educational and career interest, choices, and perfor- mance (Lent & Brown, 2013; Lent et al., 1994). The theory further aimed at sat- isfaction and other aspects of well-being in academic and career-related settings, and highlights processes whereby people manage common developmental tasks and uncommon challenges across the career lifespan (Lent & Brown, 2019, p. 1). Within the context of this study, SCCT is applicable in that this study focuses on the inter- relations between students’ academic pursuits, career development, and perceived employability outcomes. Additionally, we proposed practitioners’ vocational guid- ance with a direct learning model as a process of fostering satisfaction and well- being in an academic major, as well as managing academic/career tasks.
The tenet of SCCT also emphasizes self-efficacy as a mediator between process and outcome (Lent & Brown, 2019). This theory is essential in this study since our interest is to ascertain the mediating effects of career learning self-efficacy on career and employability outcomes. Since our interest is primarily on the career develop- ment of students within educational settings, we propose that a learning approach (direct learning) within vocational guidance will help to foster the career develop- ment of students. Thus, there is a synergy between learning and career development.
All in all, there is a synergy between SCCT, vocational guidance, and direct learning models.
Direct learning theory
Although variously defined, direct learning instruction is a natural and fundamen- tal approach found effective in enhancing learning outcomes (Higueras-Herbada et al., 2019; Kim & Axelrod, 2005). Thus, it is geared towards enhancing the effi- cacy of learning among students. The direct learning instructional model entails a principle of precision teaching and clear goal-oriented in which the teacher actively takes the lead to pass information to the students who may be actively or passively involved (Becker & Engelimann, 1977; Kenny, 1980). It could, therefore, involve lecture, demonstration, corrections, guided, and independent practices (Borich, 2010; Rosenshine, 2008). Therefore, in the context of this study, direct learning is a model whereby instructions involving the demonstration of practical tasks in electrical/electronic technology and career-related skills (physical dexterity and vid- eos) are led by field experts while the students listen, observe/watch, and ask related questions but are not actively engaged to perform any practical task during the inter- vention. Direct learning instruction is, therefore, a model that promotes students’ academic and career skills. Hence, we theorize that direct learning has a link with SCCT since both are geared towards the academic well-being of students.
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Conceptual framework and hypotheses
From the tenets of the theories underpinning this study, we hypothesize that voca- tional advice and guidance will facilitate career commitment making (H1), identi- fication with commitment (H2), perceived employability skills (H3), via enhanced career learning self-efficacy (H4&5).
Promoting career commitment
Career commitment is characterized by a “strong sense of identification, persuasion, development and active involvement in individual career goals,” and represents the “strong desire to remain in the same profession’ (Srikanth & Israel, 2012, p. 139).
In this study, career commitment is the students’ psychological bond to their present or intended profession even when expectancy equity is not met (Chukwuedo, 2018), and it embeds career commitment making and identification with commitment (Por- feli et al., 2011). While career commitment making reflects the “extent to which a person has committed to an occupation,” identification with commitment represents the “degree to which a person integrates a commitment in their core self-structure” (Marinica & Negru-Subtirica, 2020, p. 4). Hence, any profession in which its recipi- ents have a high tendency to withdraw from the profession (Zanardelli et al., 2016) requires vocational guidance intervention that promotes direct learning experiences via practitioners.
Supporting students with academic or career dysfunctional thoughts or indecisive behaviors is very essential for a clearer and successful career path. Career guidance/ counseling (Maree, 2016) has proved to be an important determinant of academic (Evans & Burck, 1992; Gibson & Cartwright, 2014) and career (Bimrose & Hearne, 2012) development. Several previous studies have found that mentor career support (Renn et al., 2014) and career counseling (Maree, 2016) have a significant effect on employees’ (e.g., Chen & Javid-Yazdi, 2019) and students/graduates’ (e.g., Kepir Savoly & Dost, 2020) career development. Nonetheless, little is known about the
Pre-Experimental Survey - Administration of the measures prior to the intervention
Post-Experimental Survey - Administration of the measures after the intervention
Intervention Processes & Sessions with Days/Times (16 weeks) 1. Familiarization and revisiting (2days,-1day in a week; 90 minutes each) 2. Personalities identification (4days – 2days in a week; 120 minutes each) 3. Occupational values/demands (3days – 1day in a week; 90 minutes each) 4. Assessing career practical skills (3days, 2days in a week; 90 minutes each) 5. Application of theories (4days- 2days in a week; 120 minutes each) 6. Introducing direct learning (2days – 1day in a week; 90 minutes each) 7. Detailed direct learning (4days – 2days in a week; 135 minutes each) 8. Merging sessions 5 & 7 (1day; 120minutes) 9. Feedback and departure (1day in a week; 90 minutes)
Follow-Up Survey - Administration of the measures after post experimental survey
2 weeks
10 weeks
2 weeks
Figure 1 D esign of the study with the intervention sessions
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career development of students in vocational–technical education-based programs.
Precisely, Okolie et al., (2020) noted a lack of career counseling services for stu- dents in Nigerian universities, especially in vocational education. In essence, many of these students exhibit academic and career dysfunctional thoughts or indecisive behaviors (Kim et al., 2015), which leads to detachment or separation from their major. Hence, there is a need for career counseling to promote psychological bonds with their profession or career.
Although educational institutions attempt to inculcate career skills in the stu- dents, enhancing the vocational identity of students is still necessary since it forms the prelude for career interest, adjustment, and flexibility (Gupta et al., 2015). Voca- tional identity development is seen as one of the most important tasks facing adoles- cents and young adults (Zhang et al., 2019). As a dimension of vocational identity, research has implicitly and explicitly suggested that enhanced career commitment will promote graduates’ confidence in readiness for the world of work (e.g., Porfeli et al., 2011; Rhee et al., 2016). Thus, promoting career commitment among pro- spective graduates will enhance professional transition. Our theory, therefore, is that when students are guided or counseled by field experts (not just classroom teachers), their career commitment will increase.
H1 Students’ levels of career commitment making will significantly increase after the practitioners’ vocational guidance intervention (T2 and T3) when compared to (a) their levels prior to the intervention (T1) and (b) a control group.
H2 Students’ levels of identification with commitment will significantly increase after the practitioners’ vocational guidance intervention (T2 and T3) when compared to (a) their levels prior to the intervention (T1) and (b) a control group.
Enhancing perceived employability skills
After school, unemployment is one of the most frustrating times of life among unemployed individuals (Shi et al., 2018), which has also imposed adverse effects on national development and security. Consequently, the major concerns of nations confronted with varied economic difficulties include skills development, human capital development, professional transition, employment, unemployment, and reemployment (Guilbert et al., 2016; World Bank, 2019). Thus, the fear of rising unemployment syndrome affects students’ perceived employability skills—how stu- dents perceive themselves in the future, after completing their education/training and be ready to fit into the labor market or become employed, even in their occupa- tional interest (Gunawan et al., 2018; Vanhercke et al., 2014). Measures for handling employment challenges among fresh graduates should be initiated before gradua- tion to foster a smooth school-to-work transition (Karli, 2016; Kepir Savoly & Dost, 2020; Renn et al., 2014). Consequently, it is important to encourage and guide stu- dents on career goals, decision-making, and management for their perceived future employability.
Studies have previously shown that an individual who receives relevant train- ing with a guided career path has a higher tendency to successfully transit from school to work (e.g., Kepir Savoly & Dost, 2020; Koen et al., 2012) and overcome job search self-defeating behaviors (Chukwuedo & Ogbuanya, 2018; Renn et al.,
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2014). The continued increase in unemployment among graduates of higher educa- tion (World Bank, 2019) reflects the need for support mechanisms in the acquisition of employability skills. Jackson and Edgar (2019) emphasized that employability can be enhanced when students draw from work experiences. Thus, smooth school- to-work transition among students largely depends on allied and apt career train- ing. In all, we theorize that when students are guided or counseled by field experts (not just classroom teachers), perceived employability skills among students will be enhanced.
H3 Students’ levels of perceived employability skills will significantly increase after the practitioners’ vocational guidance intervention (T2 and T3) when com- pared to (a) their levels prior to the intervention (T1) and (b) a control group.
Increasing career learning self-efficacy as a mediator
In every human endeavor, concerns about self and abilities cannot be overempha- sized, because these attributes contribute to the overt behavioral and performance outcomes of the individual. In career development, career self-efficacy has become a very important and intriguing variable among researchers (e.g., Chukwuedo & Ogbuanya, 2020; Deer et al., 2018; Godwin, 2019; Renn et al., 2014). Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in their ability to accomplish a task (Bandura, 1986; Deer et al., 2018). Thus, career learning self-efficacy is the belief in one’s confidence to embark on, learn, and accomplish career-related tasks (Betz, 2007). Previous stud- ies that are hinged on SCCT (e.g., Brown & Lent, 2017; Lent & Brown, 2019; Renn et al., 2014; Wendling & Sages, 2020) have shown that career self-efficacy has a relationship with career outcomes (Bandura et al., 2001). Individuals with higher career self-efficacy are more relatively stable in their career decision-making and behavior than individuals with low self-efficacy (e.g., Kezar et al., 2020). More so, studies have shown that career self-efficacy can be enhanced via relevant interven- tions (e.g., Godwin, 2019; Ozlem, 2019). Since interventions have fostered stu- dents’ self-efficacy (and self-efficacy predicts career development), we presume that increased career learning self-efficacy will increase confidence to remain in one’s profession, enhance the psychological bond with one’s career, as well as promote positively perceived future employability.
H4 Students’ levels of career learning self-efficacy beliefs will significantly increase after the practitioners’ vocational guidance intervention (T2 and T3) when compared to (a) their levels prior to the intervention (T1) and (b) a control group.
H5 We expect that the effect of practitioners’ vocational advice and guidance on (a) career commitment making, (b) identification with commitment, and (c) perceive employability skill, will be mediated by increased career learning self-efficacy, as a result of the intervention (T2).
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Methods Pilot survey
Because the literature has continued to identify and attempt to solve academic and career-related challenges of vocational-technology education students in Nigeria (e.g., Ogbuanya et al., 2018; Orji & Ogbuanya, 2018), we deemed it fit to conduct a pilot survey with a three-item questionnaire (Yes, No, and Don’t Know/ Not Sure response options) to confirm the need for this study since behavior changes with time. From 231 students (in two universities: A = 103, and B = 128), we conveniently administered the questionnaire to 92 students from University A and 105 students from University B for the pilot survey. Results are presented as follows: Q1. Do you intend to remain in this major even upon graduation? From University A: Yes (n = 18, 19.6%), No (n = 68, 73.9%), and Don’t Know (n = 6, 6.5%). From University B: Yes (n = 1 0, 9.5%), No (n = 7 7, 73.3%), and Don’t Know (n = 18, 17.1%). Q2. Do you know the prospect of your major /profession?
From University A: Yes (n = 2 4, 26.1%), No (n = 5 2, 56.5%), and Don’t Know (n = 16, 17.4%). From University B: Yes (n = 10, 9.5%), No (n = 61, 58.1%), and Not Sure (n = 34, 32.4%). Q3. Would you like to be guided to make progress in this profession? From University A: Yes (n = 31, 33.7%), No (n = 50, 54.3%), and Don’t Know (n = 11, 12%). From University B: Yes (n = 71, 67.6%), No (n = 9, 8.6%), and Don’t Know (n = 25, 23.8%).
From the survey, it can be inferred that the students tend to face some level of frustration in their major, perhaps because the majority did not originally choose the major but were offered admission, which they accepted reluctantly (Chukwuedo & Ogbuanya, 2018). The responses indicate that majority of the students tend to quit their profession upon graduation, do not know the prospect of their profession, and need guidance for an apt professional transition.
Participants and procedure
From the results of the pilot survey, participants (N = 214) were purposively drawn among the students who undertake electrical/electronic technology courses from the two universities in Nigeria. We used university A as the control group and university B as the intervention group. Because participation was voluntary, 17 from a population of 231 dropped out of the experiment. Thus, we employ a two-group quasi-experimental design involving an intervention group (n = 111) and a control group (n = 103). See Table 1 for the participants’ data. In this design, two intact classes or groups are concurrently given treatment conditions such that the experimental (intervention) group receives the new or proposed method by the researchers; while the control group receives the usual or alterna- tive method that is somewhat alike to the intervention group (Gay et al., 2011; Stone-Romero & Rosopa, 2008). Thus, our proposed or new method received by the intervention group was practitioners’ or field experts’ vocational advice and
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guidance with the direct learning model; while the alternative method received by the control group was vocational advice and guidance delivered by students’ teachers (which we termed classroom teachers-based career advice and guidance with no direct learning model).
Participants in the intervention group received practitioners’ vocational advice and guidance with the integration of direct learning experience (in which the field experts gave employment and job search tips, and demonstrated practical skills together with the use of videos in electrical/electronic technology), while the students listen, watch, and interact with the experts. The practitioners for the intervention group comprised self-employed experts in electrical/electronic technology (n = 7, male = 5, female = 2), industrial psychologists (n = 2; male = 1, female = 1 ), and the regular classroom teachers/lecturers of the students (n = 4, male = 3, female = 1). The self-employed experts were drawn from one or more works/specialties in electrical/electronics (e.g., design/construction, mainte- nance, sales/purchase, residential/industrial installation, etc. of electrical/elec- tronic devices, appliances, and materials). Participants in the control group also received vocational advice and guidance only from their regular classroom lectur- ers (n = 5, all males), without any direct learning experience.
For ethical reasons, necessary informed consent was sought and permission was received from the departments in the universities where the study was conducted.
The students’ consents were also sought via the heads of the departments and the course lecturers. Accordingly, students were duly informed and their confidentiality was assured and maintained before, during, and after the intervention/data collection periods. Hence, all procedures were not obstructed with any audio or audio–visual technology. Finally, no reward was offered for participation.
Table 1  Participants Distribution (Frequency and Percentage)
Part-time is a 5- or 6-year academic program. To classify the part-time students for this study, the first year remains the first year; the second and third-year students were merged as the second year; the fourth year students were taken as the third year; while the fifth and sixth year students were merged as the fourth year. Full-time is just a four year program
Demographic Categories Intervention Group Control Group Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Sex Male 92 63 95 92 187 87 Female 19 17 8 8 27 13 Program Full-time 48 43 56 54 104 49 Part-time 63 57 47 46 110 51 Age < 23 years 50 45 49 48 99 46 23 years and above 61 55 54 52 115 54 Level/Class First Year 32 29 39 38 71 33 Second Year 38 34 33 32 71 33 Third Year 23 21 15 15 38 18 Fourth Year 18 16 16 15 34 16
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Intervention process
Prior to the intervention, the practitioners and the classroom teachers were briefed on the intervention. Because the practitioners helped in validating the intervention schedule, they could undertake the intervention successfully without any formal training to deliver career intervention. Additionally, these practitioners have previ- ously conducted career intervention among university students and are relatively experts in career guidance/training. Thus, they were also considered fit for the experimental group. For the control group, the classroom teachers too were given detailed planned training but were briefed by two industrial psychologists and the researchers on the requirement in SCCT and RIASEC to deliver career intervention (which was just two days meeting in a week). Besides, the teachers had previous knowledge of vocational guidance because it was a fundamental course especially during their master’s and doctorate degrees. Hence, we considered them suitable for the control group.
Intervention for the experimental group
By reviewing and sieving allied techniques and ideas on academic, career, or occupational-related counseling, theories, and interventions (e.g., Amstrong et al., 2008; Bandura, 1986; Holland, 1997; Lent & Brown, 2013; Ogbuanya & Chuk- wuedo, 2017), we employed a profile of activities for our intervention. It is a nine- session model herein termed Career Guidance and Skills Profile (CGSP) of activ- ity for this study, and it lasted for 16 weeks with unequal times of activities (total time = 2610 min or 43.5 h) ranging from 90 t0 135 min per day (see Figure 1 for details of time distribution per session). Our intervention is also supported by the tenets of SCT, SCCT, Holland’s six occupational personality type theory, and related vocational/career guidance and counseling interventions. For a success- ful intervention, we divided the group into three equal subgroups (n = 37 each) in a class using the balloting technique for the simple random sampling method. All the same, the field experts were consulted to enhance the validity of the CGSP activities before the process.
Practitioners’ Vocational Guidance Career Self-efficacy Identification with Commitment Employability Skills
Career Commitment Making
-.278***
-.223*** (-.211***)
-.483*** (-.424***)
-.259*** (-.241***)
-.017
-.058*
-.018
Figure 2 M odel and mediation paths. ***p < .001, *p < .05. Dotted lines depict non-significant paths.
Regression estimates (β) in bracket represent direct effects
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Session 1 covered first and second visitations by the practitioners to familiar- ize themselves with the students and their lecturers. Necessary introduction and exchange of pleasantries were made. Session 2 involved the exploration of the stu- dents’ academic major satisfaction, career, or perceived occupational demands and challenges. Here, there were also attempts to briefly understand the personalities of the students. This session involves ‘cracking the knots’ in that the practitioners have to employ unobstructed approaches to elicit relevant information from the students.
Therapeutic skills (e.g., empathy, the interest of participants) were employed to ena- ble the students to feel at ease with the practitioners. Accordingly, the students’ love, likes, dislikes, and relationships with humans/materials were technically explored.
In Sect. 3 (occupational values and employment demands), students’ occupational values were ascertained. Issues arising therein were carefully addressed. Then, net- working and job interview techniques were presented. Here, therapeutic skills were also employed. An attempt was made to help the students have an initial understand- ing of occupational values, life roles, and career aspirations.
The activities of session 4 (level of students’ career-related practical skills in their major) enabled us to ascertain the specific areas of practical skills needed for the students. This session enabled us to improve on the expected direct learn- ing experiences. Session 5 involves the application of theories (e.g., SCT, SCCT, and Holland’s model). In the use of SCCT, environmental and social influences on career development and occupational choice were explained. The practitioners’ experiences, achievements, and successes in their occupations were illustrated. This helped to guide the students to find strategies to surpass their academic major and occupational challenges. In this session, Holland’s model (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional—RIASEC) was briefly explained, as it relates to individual differences in the context of a career. Students were also guided on how to set career goals before graduation—being specific in goal setting, setting out measurable, achievable, and relevant goals, and using relevant time. Ses- sion 6, therefore, introduces the expected direct learning in electrical and electronic technology. As a form of direct learning, videos were also used for the lesson. In this model, students listen, watch/observe, and ask necessary questions do not perform any practical task.
Session 7 was detailed on direct learning (demonstration of career practical skills in electrical/electronic technology). Career-related practical skills in electrical/elec- tronic occupational areas were demonstrated (e.g., circuits drafting, design, and implementation, domestic electrical installation works, digital electronics mainte- nance, and construction of power circuits such as solar panels). Here, the students listen and observe as the practitioners demonstrate and display practical skills.
Where videos were applied, the students watch as the practitioners explain complex activities in the video in detail. Section 8 merged sessions 5 and 7 to enable the stu- dents to internalize the relationship between their values, interest, occupation, and abilities in practical tasks for successful employment. Additionally, the students’ strengths in academics and life were elicited via interactions. Thus, their strengths and positive feelings were used to encourage them in line with their profession. In session 9, practitioners interacted more with the students and obtained feedback information. All concerns raised were resolved by the practitioners before departure.

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