Keywords Hope · Career · Healthcare professionals
* Sara Santilli firstname.lastname@example.org Maria C. Ginevra email@example.com Lea Ferrari firstname.lastname@example.org Teresa Maria Sgaramella email@example.com Spencer Niles firstname.lastname@example.org Laura Nota email@example.com Salvatore Soresi firstname.lastname@example.org 1 Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education and Applied Psychology, University of Padova, via Belzoni, 84, 35131 Padua, Italy 2 School of Education, The College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, USA
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L’Utilisation du Hope Centered Career Inventory (HCCI)—Version Italienne avec les Professionnels de la Santé. Pour aborder les challenges de carrière du 21ème siècle, as reported by Niles (Career ﬂow: a hope-centered approach to career development, Pearson Education Inc., New York, 2011) ont développé le Hope-Cen- tered Model of Career Development (GCMCD) à partir duquel ils ont dérivé le Hope- Centered Inventory (incluant les domaines de l’espoir, de la réﬂexion sur soi, de la clarté sur soi, du visioning, de la planiﬁcation d’objectifs, de l’implémentation, et de l’adaptation). L’étude actuelle teste les propriétés psychométriques structurelles, les validités structurelles, convergentes, et discriminantes de la version Italienne du HCCI. Des analyses de facteurs conﬁrmatoires dans un échantillon de 536 profes- sionnels de la santé ont supporté la validité de la mesure parmi les professionnels de la santé, ont conﬁrmé le modèle de hope-centered career competencies, et ont ren- forcé l’importance de l’espoir pour une gestion eﬃcace de carrière dans le contexte de travail actuel.
Verwendung des Hope Centered Career Inventory (HCCI)—Italienische Ver- sion mit Fachleuten des Gesundheitswesens. Um den beruﬂichen Herausforder- ungen des 21. Jahrhunderts zu begegnen, entwickelten as reported by Niles (Career ﬂow: a hope-centered approach to career development, Pearson Education Inc., New York, 2011) das Hope-Centered Model of Career Development (HCMCD), aus dem sie das Hope-Centered Career Inventory (einschließlich der Bereiche Hoﬀnung, Selb- streﬂexion, Selbstklarheit, Visionen, Zielsetzung/Planung, Umsetzung und Anpas- sung) ableiteten. Die aktuelle Studie testet die psychometrischen Eigenschaften, die strukturelle, konvergente und diskriminierende Validität der italienischen Version des HCCI. Bestätigende Faktoranalysen in einer Stichprobe von 536 Fachkräften des Gesundheitswesens untermauerten die Validität der Messung bei den Fachkräften des Gesundheitswesens. Sie bestätigten das Modell der hoﬀnungszentrierten beruﬂichen Kompetenzen und bestärken die Bedeutung der Hoﬀnung für eﬀektives beruﬂiches Selbstmanagement im aktuellen Arbeitskontext.
Usando el Inventario de la Carrera Centrada en la Esperanza (HCCI)—Versión en italiano con profesionales de la salud. Para hacer frente a los desafíos sobre las carreras profesionales del siglo 21, as reported by Niles (Career ﬂow: a hope-centered approach to career development, Pearson Education Inc., New York, 2011) desarrol- laron el Modelo de Desarrollo de la Carrera Centrado en la Esperanza (HCMCD) del cual derivaron el Inventario de la Carrera Centrada en la Esperanza (que incluye las dimensiones: esperanza, autorreﬂexión, auto-claridad, visión, planiﬁcación/establec- imiento de objetivos, implementación y adaptación). El estudio actual pone a prueba las propiedades psicométricas, la validez estructural, convergente y discriminante de la versión italiana del HCCI. Los análisis factoriales conﬁrmatorios de una muestra de 536 profesionales de la salud apoyaron la validez del instrumento entre los profe- sionales de la salud, conﬁrmaron el modelo de competencias de gestión de la carrera
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centradas en la esperanza, y reforzó la importancia de la esperanza para una eﬁcaz autogestión de la carrera profesional en el actual contexto laboral.
Twenty-ﬁrst century employees must be responsive to the unpredictable and unsta- ble work market existing today. Although this is true for workers in all occupations, it is especially true for human service professions such as healthcare professionals because they have to handle many diﬃculties, especially related to career instabil- ity, low pay, and work–family balance diﬃculties as women are primarily involved in these jobs (Kanel & Horn-Mallers, 2016). Moreover, healthcare professionals are often charged with working most closely with high-risk populations such as at-risk youth, immigrants, and people with disabilities (Santilli, Ginevra, Nota, & Soresi, 2018). They are exposed to client problems that make them more prone to frustra- tion, emotional exhaustion, and higher level of stress. There is now a global consen- sus about the high risk of stress and burnout that aﬀect healthcare professionals. For example, the meta-analysis conducted by Alarcon (2011), involving 231 samples of workers from published studies from 1990 to 2010, found that higher demands, lower resources, and lower adaptive organizational attitudes were positively associ- ated with burnout especially in human services professionals. Conversely, aspects as support from superiors and colleagues, fair leadership, autonomy, and positive challenge emerged as predictors of well-being in a wide variety of job types includ- ing human service professions (Finne, Christensen, Knardahl, 2014; Nielsen et al. 2017; Sofology, Efstratopoulou, & Dunn, 2019).
Even as a result of the economic crisis of 2008 in Italy, work in healthcare ﬁeld has undergone numerous changes at an administrative, political, and social level.
The general loss of professional autonomy has been accompanied by scarcity in resources so much that national research has highlighted an economic precarious- ness of working life, torn by internships, training contracts, project contracts, exces- sive workloads, often unpaid overtime, confusion in the tasks, and diﬃculties in attributing meaning to one’s work (Gardini & Ferraro, 2015). All this has a negative eﬀect on the work performance, the relationship with the recipients of the interven- tions, and the quality of working life, so that the healthcare professionals come to complain about the emergence of new forms of inequality and mechanisms of natu- ralization of the link between population, territory, and social hardship (Gardini & Ferraro, 2015). According to Di Sipio, Falco, Kravina, and de Carlo (2012), in the Italian context more eﬀorts should be provided to test new instruments that focus on employees’ resources to be used in prevention and to promote positive career devel- opment and well-being.
The attention on resources and positive aspects of working and life respond to the global call derived from applying positive psychology models to enhance the well-being of healthcare professionals and, relatedly, well-being of individuals they serve professionally (Mills, Fleck, & Kozikowski, 2013; Roberts, 2006; Youssef & Luthans, 2007). Within this literature, particular attention has been devoted to the construct of hope, which is viewed as a crucial ingredient of well-being for
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healthcare professionals who addressed situations characterized by signiﬁcant dif- ﬁculties and discomfort. Snyder (2002) deﬁned hope as a positive motivational state that includes identifying goals, précising the strategies to reach these goals (path- ways thinking) and maintaining the motivation in using these strategies (agency thinking). Related to many positive outcomes and well-being in many ﬁelds from school, to sport, to work, it is now advocated as a positive resource to cope with the many career challenges workers are actually experiencing (Uusiautti, 2016).
A meta-analysis conducted by Avey, Reichard, Luthans, and Mhatre (2011) on workers, included also healthcare professionals, showed hope as signiﬁcantly and strongly related to desirable attitudes, i.e., to job satisfaction, organizational com- mitment, and psychological well-being at work. Hope emerged related to working behaviors and job performance, suggesting that healthcare professionals charac- terized by high hope level are capable of coming up with various solutions when problems occur in their jobs, eventually making them into high performers when compared with low-hope workers (Avey et al., 2011). Moreover, hope resulted nega- tively related to negative work outcomes, i.e., frustration and emotional exhaustion, burnout, and psychophysical discomfort (McCarter & Northcraft, 2007; Schwartz, Tiamiyu, & Dwyer, 2007). Although from diﬀerent approaches, taken together stud- ies on beneﬁt of hope underline the distinctive role it may play on workplace out- comes, especially for healthcare professionals.
Accordingly, McCarter and Northcraft (2007) suggested that in order to improve work self-eﬃcacy, it is worth studying how to evaluate, promote, and maintain hope in professionals who for work reasons have a direct contact with persons. Litera- ture also suggests that high hopeful healthcare professionals are to a larger extent capable of restoring people’s hope and optimism, maintaining their aspirations, so as to bridge the gap between events of their present life and the need to look for- ward into the future (Santilli et al., 2018). At this regard, Schwartz et al. (2007), in a study involving 676 human service professionals found their level of hope positively correlated with the perception they have about hope experienced by their typical or usual client. Additionally, Cutcliﬀe (2004, 2006), analyzing strategies healthcare professionals use when trying to instill hope in clients experiencing a loss, under- lined that instilling hope is an implicit process embedded in the whole counseling process. This, in turn, includes three diﬀerent steps: (a) establishing a client–counse- lor alliance; (b) facilitating a cathartic deliverance during the counseling process; (c) reaching a positive counseling conclusion.
To address the twenty-ﬁrst century career challenges, Niles, Amundson, and Neault (2011) developed the Hope-Centered Model of Career Development (HCMCD) from which they derived the Hope-Centered Career Inventory (HCCI; Niles, Yoon, & Amundson, 2010a). The model takes into account attitudes and behaviors needed for an eﬀective career self-management in the current work con- text where high levels of self-awareness, creative visioning, and adaptability are required. It integrates and synthesizes theories based on Bandura’s (2001) human agency theory, Hall’s (1996) career meta-competencies, and Snyder’s (2002) Hope Theory. More speciﬁcally, Snyder’s (2004) hope deﬁnition encompasses goal, the ability to generate potential paths for goal achievement (pathway), and the belief that one can, and will take the necessary steps to achieve those goals (agency).
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In line with action-oriented hope, the competences listed in the HCMCD are self- reﬂection that refers to ability to examining personal thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and circumstances; self-clarity that refers to understanding of personal’s impor- tant self-characteristics such as interests, values, skills, motivation, goals; vision- ing that refers brainstorming future possibilities for personal career and identifying desired future outcomes; goal setting/planning that refers ﬁxing desires and iden- tifying speciﬁc steps to achieve the goals; implementing that refers taking action to achieve one’s goals; and adapting that refers to use new information about the self and/or the environment to adjust ones goals and/or plans when necessary. These career development competencies are considered relevant because having a sense of hope allows a person to envisage possibilities in any situation and encourages the individual to undertake actions. Self-reﬂection helps to understand and classify a given work experience according to personal parameters; self-clarity is important in understanding personal and contextual resources needed to functionally adapt and overcome challenges. Moreover, visioning, goal setting, and planning support imag- ining positive alternatives and identifying helpful strategies to eﬀectively pursue a desired goal. Finally, implementing and adapting are needed for implementing goals and utilizing new learning that occurs post-implementation. As concern the HCCI (Niles et al., 2010a, b), it is a 28-item self-report measure that includes seven sub- scales composed by 4 items each: Hopefulness about personal future (Hope), Self- reﬂection, Self-clarity, Visioning, Goal Setting and Planning, Implementing, Adapt- ing. Good psychometric properties have been shown in diﬀerent studies that validate its adaptation such as with U.S. and Canadian samples (Amundson et al., 2013), German (Schreiber & Schindler, 2015), Turkish (Niles, Yoon, Balın, & Amundson, 2010b), and Korean (Niles, In, & Amundson, 2014) populations.
Strategies provided by the model are suggested also to be relevant in managing work issues and career transitions in adults. In a single-case study, Niles, Yoon, Balın, and Amundson (2010b) asked Ceren, a 29-year-old Turkish woman to com- plete the HCCI and then counseled her following the HCMCD model. Results reported in the case discussion allowed to conclude the HCMCD could be used to promote career self-management of workers and empower workers to identify employment opportunities. More recently, referring to the HCMCD and using the HCCI, Clarke, Amundson, Niles, and Yoon (2018) tested the eﬃcacy of a set of personalized hope-based interventions with a group of internationally educated pro- fessionals who were working in an underemployed capacity while were waiting for pursuing Canadian licensure in a healthcare profession. More speciﬁcally exploring their sense of self, reﬂecting on their situation, envisioning possibilities, and strate- gizing for future opportunities resulted as the most important components for help- ing these healthcare professionals to cope with their career transition.
Aim of the study
The current study aimed to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Hope-Cen- tered Career Inventory (HCCI) in the Italian context. The work has been done con- sidering the relevance of the competencies described by Niles et al. (2011) to allow
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healthcare professionals to successfully manage their daily working challenges, the role of hope in guiding actions undertaken by healthcare professionals working at direct contact with persons and the quality of life these last experience. Besides providing the opportunity to extend the potential use of this instrument, adding further basis and sustaining an intercultural and international use of a hope-centered career assessment, this study provided an instrument useful in evaluating hope in healthcare profession- als who for work reasons deal with individuals with disabilities and vulnerabilities or with persons experiencing diﬃcult situations. This step could be considered the ﬁrst to disseminate the use of this measure in Italian context with the wide aim of equipping career counselors of an innovated way of working on hope with their clients.
More speciﬁcally, the goal of the current study was to test the Italian version of the HCCI, its psychometric properties, and its structural, concurrent validity, and to see how it was associated with measures of life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griﬃn, 1985) and hope (Adult Trait Hope Scale; Snyder et al., 1991). Speciﬁcally, we predicted the following: (a) Item statistics of the Italian version of the HCCI would be conformed to normal- ity assumptions (i.e., skewness and kurtosis values with ± 1; Crocker & Algina, 1986), the dimensions positively related among them and with the total score of the HCCI. Moreover, we expected the internal consistency estimates of the seven subscales would be adequate (i.e., at least 0.60; Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). (b) The structure of the seven subscales of the Italian version would be similar to the one reported by Niles et al. (2010a, b). Speciﬁcally, we expected to conﬁrm the same structural factor that includes 28 items suturing on hope, self-reﬂection, self-clarity, visioning, goal setting/planning, implementing, and adapting. (c) Positive and high correlations between the seven subscales of the HCCI and the Adult Trait Hope Scale, and positive and moderate correlations with the Satisfac- tion with Life Scale.
Data were collected from 536 Italian healthcare professionals, of which 119 (22.2%) were men and 417 (77.8%) were women. Their mean age was 39.15 years (SD = 9.53).
Of these participants, 301 (56.2%) have a high school diploma and 235 (43.8%) a grad- uate degree. All participants worked in healthcare organizations (e.g., day and residen- tial centers), and held educational roles aiming at realizing occupational, educational, and habilitation interventions.
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Instruments The Hope-Centered Career Inventory (HCCI)
The HCCI (Niles et al., 2010a, b) includes 28 items. For each item, participants were asked to rate on a 4-point Likert scale the degree to which they agreed with each statement (1 = I don’t agree at all, 4 = I agree very much). Each of the 28 items represented one of the seven subscales of the HCCI (4 items for each dimension), referring to the seven competencies for eﬀectively coping with career ﬂow chal- lenges: Hope (e.g., “I am hopeful when I think about my future”), Self-Reﬂection (e.g., “I take time to think about my thoughts and feelings”), Self-Clarity (e.g., “I can describe who I am”), Visioning (e.g., “I set deadlines to complete my goals”), Goal Setting and Planning (e.g., “I keep myself focused so that I can complete my plans”), Implementing (e.g., “I am willing to try new experiences that might help me to achieve my goals”), Adapting (e.g., “I change my plans when necessary to achieve my goals”). A previous study conducted by Niles et al. (2010a, b) showed adequate internal consistency reliability estimates; the Cronbach α of the total score reported was .92, and it ranged between .74 and .86 for the seven subscales.
The HCCI was translated into Italian using the following procedure. First, two native Italian speakers ﬂuent in English independently translated each of the items.
They then compared their translations to achieve a common Italian version for each item. Next, the Italian translation was back-translated by a professional Italian-Eng- lish translator. Once the back-translation was completed, the professional Italian- English translator and another native Italian speaker ﬂuent in English compared each back-translated item to the corresponding original English item.